“Verily Salaat prevents one from shameful and forbidden things;
and the remembrance of Allah is the greatest” (QURAN 29:45)“Salaat is the
best of all that has been ordained by Allah” (HOLY PROPHET P.B.U.H)
Salaat occupies a lofty position in the religion of Islam. Its
performance is the foremost duty of a Muslim after he has brought faith in
the Oneness of Allah Ta’ala and the prophethood of his Holy Messenger,
Nabee Muhammad (P.B.U.H). It is a most special act of Divine worship which
he is called upon to perform five times daily without fail. The pages of
the Quran and Hadith are replete with injunctions which enjoin Salaat on
us. It is of such paramount importance that it has been described as a
pillar and foundation of faith.
Salaat, if offered with a sincere heart, proper devotion and mental
concentration, contributes to the cleansing of the heart, ridding it of
the impurities of sin and ultimately transforming one’s entire life. It
engenders love for piety and promotes fear of Allah in man. Islam has laid
greater emphasis on the institution of Salaat with regularity. Hence after
Imaan, Salaat is the bedrock of Islam.
From a study of the traditions of our Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H) we learn that
Rasoolullah (P.B.U.H) denounced the giving up of Salaat as the way of the
unbelievers. He is reported to have said:
“That which separates a believer from infidelity is simply the
“He has no share in Islam who does not offer Salaat”
Rasoolullah (P.B.U.H) sounded a note of warning to Muslims that if
they gave up Salaat their conduct would be associated with that of
What a great act of virtue and felicity it is to offer Salaat regularly
and how disastrous it is to neglect it, is beautifully summarised in the
following prophetic words:
“Whoever will offer the Salaat properly and regularly it will be for
him on the Last Day a source of light, a proof of his faith and a means to
salvation. (On the other hand) Whoever will not offer it carefully and
regularly it will be for him neither a source of light, nor a proof of
faith, nor a means of salvation, and the end of such a person will be with
Qarun, Fir’aun, Haman and Ubai-bin-Khalaf.”
The ignominy and disgrace that the defaulters of Salaat will be
subjected to on the Day of judgement, has been aptly described in the Holy
“The day that the sin shall be laid bare, and they shall be summoned to
bow in adoration, but they shall not be able, their eyes shall be cast
down - ignominy will cover them, seeing that they had been summoned
aforetime to bow in adoration while they were hale and healthy (and had
According to the above Qur’anic verse mankind will be summoned to bow down
in adoration before Allah Ta’ala on the Last Day. Only the fortunate ones,
who had during their lifetime made it a practice to be regular in their
Salaat , will find no difficulty in bowing down. Those who in spite of
being healthy and strong, had not observed Salaat in this world, will
discover to their dismay that their backs had suddenly grown stiff with
the result that they will remain standing with the infidels unable to
prostrate before their Lord and Creator. Such will be the humiliation and
disgrace for the defaulters of Salaat! May Allah Ta’ala save us from such
It is a invaluable contribution from an Aalim who has dedicated this
service to Allah Ta’ala and wishes to remain anonymous.
“Successful indeed are the believers who are humble in their Salaat”
THE TIME OF SALAAT
THE TIME FOR
Approximately 11/2 hours before sunrise a dim whitish glow appears
vertically in the eastern horizon. Soon after this vertical glow, a
brightness appears horizontally in the eastern horizon. This horizontal
glow spreads instantly along the horizon becoming larger and larger until
after a short while it becomes light. The time for Fajr Salaat commences
with the appearance of this horizontal glow in the eastern horizon. This
time marked by the appearance of this horizontal glow is known as Fajre
Awwal or Subh Sadiq (True Dawn). The time for Fajr Salaat lasts until
THE TIME FOR
The time for Zuhr Salaat begins immediately after Zawaal or mid-day. The
time of mid-day or Zawaal is calculated by dividing the hours of daylight
by two, and adding the result to the time of sunrise, e.g:
Zawaal will be at 12pm
It is forbidden to perform Salaat at the time of Zawaal. After
Approximately five minutes (i.e five minutes after Zaw-waa) Zuhr time
The time for Zuhr Salaat lasts until the length of the shadow of an object
becomes twice the size of the object plus the size of the shadow which was
cast at the time of Zawaal.
THE TIME FOR
Asr time begins immediately upon the expiry of Zuhr time, and lasts until
sunset. However , it is Makrooh (reprehensible) to delay the performance
of Asr Salaat until the sun’s ray become yellowish and dim as is the case
THE TIME FOR
Immediately after sunset the time for Maghrib Salaat commences, and it
lasts until the white glow of twilight remains.
THE TIME FOR
The time for Isha Salaat begins immediately after expiry of the time of
Maghrib, i.e immediately after the white glow of twilight disappears.
Ishaa time lasts until Fajre Awwal or Subh sadiq (True Dawn). The moment
Fadre Awwal enters, Ishaa time expires.
HOW TO PERFORM SALAAT
Salaat consists of units. Each unit is called a Raka’t. There are two
Raka’t , three Raka’t and four Raka’t Salaats in the Fardh or obligatory
category of Salaat.
Each unit or Raka’t consists of the following essential component parts:
1. The posture of standing erect which is called Qiyaam.
2. Recitation of some verses of the Holy Quran. This is termed Qiraat.
3. The posture of genuflexion or bowing lowly which is called Ruku’.
4. The posture of prostration or placing the forehead on the ground. This
is called Sujood. Each unit or Raka’t has two Sujoods, ie the prostration
has to be performed twice in each Raka’t .
Every two Raka’t s are followed by a sitting posture. In other words it is
necessary to sit in a kneeling-type posture after completing two Raka’ts
of any Salaat. This kneeling posture is known as Qa’dah.
Two Sujoods (prostrations) are always separate by a kneeling posture. The
kneeling posture, which separates one Sujood from other , is called Jalsah.
THE METHOD OF PERFORMING A TWO - RAKA’T SALAAT
The Musalli stands erect, facing the Qiblah, gaze cast down. He forms the
Niyyat (intention) for his Salaat and says:
As he utters.
he raises both hands upwards towards his head in such a manner that the
palms of both hands face the Qiblah, and the hands should be raised to a
height where the thumbs are in line with the lobes of the ears. Once the
hands reach the required height the Musalli should immediately bring them
down and fold them below the navel. When folding the hands the Musalli
should ensure that:
· The right hand is on top of the left hand
· The right hand should clasp the left hand in such a manner that the
thumb and the little finger of the right hand encircle the left hand
wrist, and the other three fingers of the right hand should be spread
horizontally along the left forearm immediately above the wrist.
Once the hands have been folded as explained above , the Musalli should
recite the following:
SUB-HANNA-KAL-LAA-HUM-MA WA BI-HAMDI-KA WA TA- BAA-RAKAS- MU-KA WA TA-AALA
JAD-DU-KA WA LAA-ILAA-HA GHAY-RUK.
Glory unto You, Oh Allah! All praise unto You. Blessed is your Name and
Most High is Your Majesty. There is none worthy of worship, but You.
(N.B This is known as Thana.)
After reciting Thana, the Musalli recites Ta’ow-wuz,i.e:
A -OOZU BIL-LAAHI MINASH-SHAITAA-NIR RAJEEM
I seek the protection of Allah from Shaitaan, the accursed After
Ta’ow-wuz recite Tasmia, i.e:
BISMILLA-HIR RAHMANIR RAHIM
In the Name of Allah , the Beneficent , the Merciful.
After Tasmina recite Surah Fatiha, and thereafter recite a few verses of
the Holy Quran.
The posture of Qiyaam ends at this point, i.e. after completing the
recitial of a few verses of the Holy Quran. Sura Fatiha, together with a
few verses of the Holy Quran, are known as the Qiraat.
After the end of the qiraat, the Musalli should utter
and go into Ruku or the posture known as genuflexion.
THE FORM OF RUKU
In this posture the Musalli clasps both knees with his hands, the fingers
being outspread. The head and back should be in line. The Musalli should
not hump his back. The head should not be dropped, but kept erect in line
with the back.
The arms should be separated from the body without the elbows bulging out.
The gaze should be fixed on one’s feet. In the position of Ruku, recite
the following Tasbih:
Oh! Glory unto my Creator, the Majestic.
This Tasbih should be recited at least thrice.
After reciting the above Tasbih in Ruku, the Musalli should say:
SAMI-ALLAHU LIMAN HAMIDAH
Allah has heard him who praised him.
This is known as Tasmiah.
As the Musalli recites this he rises out of Ruku and stands erect and
recites the Tahmeed:
RAB-BANAA LA-KAL HAMD.
Oh our Creator! All Praise belongs unto You.
This position of standing erect after the ruku is called Qauma. The Qauma
ends with the reciting of the Tahmeed.
After reciting Tahmeed the Musalli utters
And goes down into the posture of sujood of Prostration. As the Musalli
goes into Sujood, he places on the ground firstly his knees, then both
hands. The head is placed on the ground between the two hands. The fingers
are held together facing the Qiblah, the thumbs being in line with the
eyes. As the head goes into Sujood, the nose should firstly touch the
ground and then the forehead. Both arms must be kept away from the sides
of the body. Both feet should be planted firmly on the ground with the
toes bent in the direction of the Qiblah.
In this position of sujood the Masalli recites at least thrice the
SUBHANA RAB-BIYAL A’LAA
Glory unto my Creator, The most High.
After reciting this Tasbih, the Musalli raises first his forehead, then
his nose, and finally his hands. The Musalli then goes into the kneeling
posture, known as the Jalsah, i.e. the posture which separates or
intersperses two Sujoods. As Musalli raises his head from the Sujood he
And enters the Jalsah. When sitting in Jalsah the left foot is spread out
horizontally on the ground, the Musalli resting on it. The right foot is
placed on the ground in a perpendicular (standing up) position with the
toes facing the Qiblah. The hands are placed on the thighs with the
fingers held together facing the Qiblah very close to the knees. In the
Jalsah position the Musalli utters:
Oh my Creator ! forgive me and have mercy upon me.
He goes into the second Sujood which is exactly the same as the first
The end of the second Sujood heralds the end of the First Raka’t.
THE SECOND RAKA’T
After completing the Second Sujood of the First Raka’t , the Musalli says
And enters the Qiyaam posture of the Second Raka’t i.e. he once again
stands erect, folding his hands on top of each other as explained
previously. During the Second Raka’t the following things will NOT be
carried out as was the case in the first Raka’t:
1. The hands will not be raised to the ears
2. Thana will not be recited
3. Ta-ow-wuz will not be recited.
Further, the entire Second Raka’t will be performed in exactly the same
manner as the first Raka’t with the three aforementioned exceptions.
Once the Second Sujood of the second Raka’t is completed, the Musalli
And sits in the kneeling position, i.e. the exact position he assumed in
This kneeling posture at the end of the Second Raka’t is termed Qa’dah.
During the Qa’dah the Musalli recites Tashah-hud as follows:
AT-TAHIY-YATU LIL-LAAHI WAS SALA-WAATU WAT-TAYYABATU ASSALA-MU ALAIKA AY-YUHAN
NABIY-YU WARAHMATUL-LAHI WABARAKATUH. ASSALAAMU ALAINA WA-ALA
IBADIL-LAHIS-SAALIHEEN. ASH-HADU-AL LAA-ILA-HA IL LAL-LAHU WA-ASH-HADU
ANNA MUHAMMADAN AB-DUHU WA RASAOOLUH.
All our oral, physical and monitory prayers are only for Allah. Salutation
to you Oh Prophet! And Allah’s peace and His blessings be on you.
Blessings of Allah be on us and on all those worshippers who are pious. I
testify that there is none to be worshipped but Allah and I testify that
Muhammad (p.b.u.h) is His worshipper and Messenger.
If the Salaat which is being performed is a Two Raka’t Salaat, Durood and
Dua should also be recited after the Tashah-hud.
ALLAHUMMA SALLI ALA MUHAMMADIN WA-ALA AALI MUHAMMADIN KAMA SAL-LAITA ALA
IBRAHIMA WA-ALA IBRAHIMA IN-NAKA HAMIDUM-MAJEED.
ALLAHUMMA BARIK ALA MUHAMMADIN WA-ALA AALI MUHAMMADIN KAMA BARAK-TA ALA
IBRAHIMA WA ALA AALI IBRAHIMA IN-NAKA HAMIDUM-MAJEED.
Oh Allah! Send Thy mercy on Muhammad (p.b.u.h) and on his seeds as Thou
hast sent Thy mercy on Ibrahim and his seeds. No doubt! Thou art Great and
Praiseworthy! Oh Allah! send Thy blessings on Muhammad (p.b.u.h) and on
his seeds as Thou hast blessed Ibrahim and his seeds. No Doubt! Thou art
Great and Praiseworthy.
ALLAHUMMAGH-FIR-LI WALI-WA LI-DAY-YA WALI-USTAZI WALI JAMI-IL MU’MI-NEE-NA
WAL MU’MI-NATI WAL MUSLIMEE-NA WAL MUSLIMA-TI BI RAHMATIKA YA
O Allah! Forgive my parents and my teachers and the believing men and
women and the Muslim men and Muslim women with your mercy, O Thou the Most
Merciful of those who show Mercy.
After the Dua The Musalli terminates his Salaat by making what is called
Salaam is made by saying:
ASSALLA-MU-ALAIKUM WA RAH-MATUL-LAH.
Peace upon you and the Mercy of Allah.
And simultaneously turning the head towards the right -side focussing
one’s gaze on the right shoulder. The above Salaam is then recited a
second time, turning the face to the left side with the gaze fixed on the
left shoulder this time.
Your Salaat has now been completed.
THE SALAAT OF A FEMALE.
A woman performs Salaat in the same manner as a man does. However, there
are certain differences which are enumerated hereunder:
1. In the beginning of the First Raka’t , during the Takbeer Tahreemah, a
woman does not raise her hands to her ears. She raises them only shoulder-
level, and keeps them (the hands) concealed in her outer -garment (Jilbaab
2. When folding the hands, a woman places both palms on the chest - the
right palm on top of the left palm.
3. The Ruku’ of a female is a slight bow, with the rips of the fingers
just touching the knees. The arms should be placed together with the sides
of the body, and both ankles should touch each other.
4. In Sajdah, her feet will not be kept erect but will be placed
horizontally on the ground, pointing towards the right. She must not
separate her arms from her body as a man does. She should draw her body
inwards as much as possible, the stomach touching the thighs.
5. In Jalsah and Qa’dah as well, she rests her posterior on the ground
(instead of on her legs as is the case with a man) with both her feet
spread out on her right side horizontally on the ground.
6. In certain Salaats a man can recite the qiraat loudly but it is not
permissible for a female to recite the Qiraat loudly.
THE FIVE DAILY SALAATS
The performance of Salaat five times daily is obligatory (Fardh) upon all
adult Muslims - male and female. The five compulsory Salaats are:
1. Fadjr, 2. Zuhr, 3. Asr, 4. Maghrib, 5. Ishaa.
The times for the Five daily Salaats have already been explained in the
section- THE TIMES OF SALAAT.
THE NUMBER OF RAKA’TS OF THE FIVE DAILY SALAATS
1. Fadjr Salaat has a total of four Raka’ts composed as follows:
· Two Raka’ts Sunnate Maukkadah
· Two Raka’ts Fardh
2. Zuhr Salaat has twelve raka’ts as follows:
· Four Raka’ts Sunnate Maukkadah
· Four Raka’ts Fardh
· Two Raka’ts Sunnate Muakkadah
· Two Raka’ts Nafl
3. Asr Salaat has eight raka’ts as follows:
* Four Raka’ts Sunnate-Ghair-Muakkadah
· Four Raka’ts Fardh
4. Maghrib Salaat has seven Raka’ts as follows:
· Three Raka’ts Fardh
· Two Raka’ts Sunnate Muakkadah.
· Two Raka’ts Nafl.
5. Ishaa’ Salaat has seventeen raka’ts as follows:
· Four Raka’ts Sunnate-Ghair-Muakkadah.
· Four Raka’ts Fardh.
· Two Raka’ts Sunnate Muakkadah
· Two Raka’ts Nafl
· Two Raka’ts Witr
· Two Raka’ts Nafl.
THE JUMA’ (FRIDAY) SALAAT
1. The Juma’ (friday) Salaat is obligatory upon all Muslim male residents
of a town of city. Juma’ Salaat takes the place of Zuhr Salaat.
2. The time for Juma’ Salaat is the same as that for Zuhr.
3. The Friday Khutbah is a condition (Shart) for the validity of the Juma’
Salaat . Without the Khutbah, the Juma’ Salaat is not valid.
4. The Juma’ Salaat consists of a total of fourteen Raka’ts as follows:
· 4 Raka’ts Sunnatul Mualladah
· 2 Raka’ts Fardh
· 4 Raka’ts Sunnatul Muak-kadah
· 2 Raka’ts Sunnatul Muak-kadah
· 2 Raka’ts Nafl.
5. When the Imam rises to deliver the Khutbah it is not permissible t
recite , to make
Zikr, to perform Salaat or to talk. It is Waajib to listen attentively to
6. If, after commencing with the four Raka’ts Sunnatul Muak-kadah, the
With the Khutbah, one should complete the Salaat.
7. The Khutbahs are recited before the Fardh Salaat. These Khutbas are
Actions that break the Namaz
· Rule: Speaking nullifies the Namaz, meaning to speak in
Namaz would break the Namaz whether it was done purposely or by mistake
one half of a word
· Rule: If you reply to someone by voice then the Namaz will break and if
you make an indication by hand or head then this is Makrooh [Durr-e-Mukhtar,
· Rule: To eat or drink in Namaz will break the Namaz, whether it is large
in quantity or small, whether it was eaten by mistake or deliberately upto
the extent that if an item the size of a linseed was swallowed without
even chewing it or a drop of water fell into the mouth and you swallowed
it, then the Namaz will break.
· Rule: If you broke your Wuzu deliberately or for some reason a bath
became obligatory, then the Namaz will break
· Rule: If you missed an obligatory aspect of Namaz and did not perform it
in that Namaz then the Namaz will break
To break Namaz in difficulty
Situations when you are allowed to break Namaz;
Someone who is in difficulty is asking for help and is calling this
Namazee, someone is drowning or will catch fire, a blind person will fall
in a ditch or a person is going to fall in a well, in all these situations
to break the Namaz is Wajib when this Namazee has the power to help him [Durr-e-Mukhtar,
· Rule: If you are feeling the need to go to the toilet or you have seen
enough impurity on your clothes that is allowed or the Namazee has been
touched by a unknown woman, then in all three situations it is better to
break the Namaz as long as the time of Jamaat time is not passing, and if
you have an urge to go to the toilet then it is allowed to miss the Jamaat
time, but you must not let the Namaz time pass [Radd-ul-Mohtar].
· Rule: To break Namaz is allowed in order to kill a snake or an animal
that will harm you and you are sure that it will.
When is Sijdah-e-Sahoo Wajib ?
If those actions which are Wajib in Namaz are not performed by mistake, it
is Wajib to perform the Sijdah-e-Sahoo to substitute for the action
Method of performing Sijdah-e-Sahoo
The method of performing this is, when you finish praying 'Attahiyat' in
the last Qaidah, turn your head to the right side and then perform two
Sijdahs. Then repeat Attahiyat from the beginning and complete your Namaz.
· Rule: If a Wajib was missed and you did not perform Sijdah-e-Sahoo and
completed the Namaz, then it is Wajib to repeat the Namaz. Rule: If a
Wajib is missed deliberately, then a to perform A Sijdah-e-Sahoo would not
be sufficient and therefore it would be Wajib to repeat the Namaz. Rule:
If any of the Farz actions are missed, then Sijdah-e-Sahoo would not
compensate for them and therefore the Namaz would not count and to repeat
the Namaz would be Farz.